gPosted by Crisha Alyziah Miller -When you have iron-deficiency, your cells can’t get enough oxygen. How can you tell if your levels are a little low? Be on the lookout for these 10 warning signs.
Iron is crucial to biologic functions, including respiration, energy production, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Although the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia has declined somewhat recently, iron deficiency continues to be the top-ranking cause of anemia worldwide.
The human body has evolved to conserve iron in several ways, including the recycling of iron after the breakdown of red cells and the retention of iron in the absence of an excretion mechanism.
However, since excess levels of iron can be toxic, its absorption is limited to 1 to 2 mg daily, and most of the iron in the body (about 25 mg per day) is recycled by macrophages that phagocytose senescent erythrocytes. The latter two mechanisms are controlled by the hormone hepcidin, which maintains total-body iron within normal range, avoiding both iron deficiency and excess.
Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that is synthesized primarily in the liver. It functions as an acute-phase reactant that adjusts fluctuations in plasma iron levels by binding to and inducing the degradation of ferroportin, which exports iron from cells. In iron deficiency, the transcription of hepcidin is suppressed. This adaptive mechanism facilitates the absorption of iron and the release of iron from body stores.
In most cases, iron resistance is due to disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Partial or total gastrectomy or any surgical procedure that bypasses the duodenum can cause resistance to oral iron. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which is performed in selected obese patients to reduce caloric intake and to correct diabetes, is an emerging cause of iron deficiency and anemia because the procedure effectively removes an active iron absorption site from the digestive process and increases gastric pH. Helicobacter pylori infection decreases iron absorption because the microorganism competes with its human host for available iron, reduces the bioavailability of vitamin C, and may lead to microerosions that cause bleeding. Since it is estimated that half the world’s population is infected with H. pylori, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of infection and provide treatment in order to eradicate this source of iron-resistant iron-deficiency anemia.
Patients with malabsorption and genetic iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous iron. Intravenous administration is also preferred when a rapid increase in hemoglobin level is required or when iron-deficiency anemia caused by chronic blood loss cannot be controlled with the use of oral iron, as is the case in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Active inflammatory bowel disease is an emerging indication for the use of intravenous iron; oral iron is not only ineffective but may also increase local inflammation. Intravenous iron is essential in the management of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are receiving dialysis and treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.
1. Your portions are off
You may be eating all the good stuff, but you’re eating too much of it. Take the time to read the serving size indications and stick to it by measuring out your portions or using an at-home food scale. Don’t trust yourself to guess what a cup of spaghetti looks like or you’ll be putting in all the effort of dieting without reaping any benefits. A study of overweight people found that 38 percent of those who practiced only portion control lost weight.
2. You give up too easily
It can be tempting to throw in the towel when you slip up. You may be thinking that if you’ve already ruined your diet you might as well stuff your face and start fresh tomorrow. This way of thinking will get you nowhere fast. It’s natural to overeat once in a while or indulge in that chocolate cake you know you should skip, but don’t let one mistake throw you off balance.
3. You’re exercising less
If you want to lose weight quickly and efficiently it is best to pair your diet with a regular exercise routine. Spend at least 30 minutes a day doing moderate-intensity activity at least five days a week. Whether that is a long morning walk, a bike ride, a yoga class, or an evening at the gym, make sure you don’t leave out the fitness component to your new healthy lifestyle.
4. You skip breakfast
You may think if you skip breakfast you can save those calories for lunch, snack, or dinner time, but by the time you get to lunchtime you’ll be starving and will have a tendency to overeat. Those “saved” morning calories won’t last long. According to the Mayo Clinic, eating a good breakfast helps keep you on track for healthy eating the rest of the day and refuels your body with energy to start the day.
5. You’re not getting enough protein
If you’re focusing on eating smaller portions and fewer snacks, but aren’t consuming enough protein you’ll constantly be hungry. Protein keeps your metabolism running, your energy up, and keeps you full longer as it is harder to digest than most carbohydrates. Include a lean protein in every meal and snack on items that are high in both fiber and protein like nuts, dried fruit, or hummus and veggies.
6. You’re drinking your calories
When you’re trying to lose weight you should be focused on drinking water. Not only does water make you feel full, but it is a pure, calorie free drink that is great for your skin and digestion. If you regularly consume a morning cappuccino, a soda with lunch, and a few beers with dinner you’re consuming a few extra hundred liquid calories a day.
7. You use food as a reward
Many people use food as a reward for completing a long day at work or completing a rigorous workout, but using food as a reward can be a dangerous pitfall when dieting. Emotional eating will sabotage your diet and leave you feeling worse off in the end. Studies show that 78 percent of American consumers are more likely to eat dessert as a treat to reward themselves. Rather than using food as a reward, give yourself an evening in with your favorite show or a new pair of running shoes.
by ROSALIND RYAN, femail.co.uk
Your mother’s advice that carrots can help you see in the dark may have been more than a ploy to get you to eat vegetables.Research has now proved that eating certain foods can improve your eyesight, reverse the signs of optical ageing and keep your eyes in good health.
One of the most common causes of poor sight is a condition called macular degeneration. This condition accounts for 50 per cent of all blindness and sight problems in the UK.
Imagine that your eye is like a camera. There is a lens and an opening at the front that focuses objects onto the retina at the back of your eye. The macula lies in the centre of the retina, which is sensitive to light.
Sometimes the cells of the macula become damaged and you lose the ability to appreciate colours or focus on detailed activities like reading. The condition rarely causes total blindness but can blur your central vision and sometimes make you sensitive to light.
It normally affects those over 60 years old, earning the name age related macular degeneration (ARMD), but a genetic form of the condition can also affect children and young people.
Doctors do not know exactly why the cells of the macular start to fail. One theory is that ARMD is triggered by free-radicals, harmful chemicals that your body picks up from sunlight, the atmosphere and cigarette smoke.
But there are some steps you can take to protect your eyes for the future. Follow our guide to eating your way to better eyesight.
Eat your greens
A recent study by the Florida International University found that eyes containing higher amounts of a nutrient called lutein were up to 80 per cent less likely to be suffering from ARMD.
Lutein protects the eye by forming pigments in the macula. The pigments help with vision by filtering out harmful blue light wavelengths that can damage the eye. The more pigments your eye contains, the less likely it is to fall prey to ARMD.
The Eyecare Trust, a national charity devoted to raising awareness of eye health, says, ‘There is increasing evidence to show that eating vegetables containing lutein is crucial to maintaining pigment density levels in the macula.’ Unfortunately lutein is not generated naturally by the body so you need to make sure you are getting enough from other sources.
These are mainly green leafy vegetables like spinach, broccoli and kale. A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that eating a teaspoon of green leafy veggies with a small amount of fat raised blood lutein levels by nearly 90 per cent.
You need to eat lutein-rich vegetables for several months before seeing any benefits. But if you get bored of eating spinach, you can take a vitamin supplement to boost your lutein levels. These are available from all major health food stores.
A study published in Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science discovered that volunteers taking 10 mg of natural lutein supplements every day for 12 weeks significantly increased the amount of macular pigment in their eyes.
Start crunching on carrots
It is true – eating carrots can help you see in the dark. The essential nutrient responsible is carotene which is turned into vitamin A by the liver.
Vitamin A protects the eyes by helping to absorb the light energy that passes into the eye. Increased levels of vitamin A means
your eyes can absorb more energy and become more sensitive in dim light, helping you see more effectively.Karen Sparrow, spokeswoman for opticians Vision Express, says, ‘Children that are deficient in vitamin A often have dry eyes and in extreme cases can suffer from night ‘blindness’ where they have trouble seeing in the dark.’
Good sources of carotene are carrots, mangoes and cabbage. You can also find it in cod liver oil, milk and eggs.
Another fruit famed for its ability to boost night vision is blueberries. Anecdotal evidence from RAF pilots in World War Two shows they felt their night vision improved after eating blueberries.
The ‘magic’ ingredient in blueberries is a group of compounds called anthocyanosides. These attach to the area of the retina that is responsible for adjusting the eye to see in the dark.
You will need to eat blueberries for more than two months before starting to notice any effects. If they are difficult to get hold of, you can take them in capsule form or tablets, available from good health food shops. Aim to take up to 600 mg every day.
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-99368/Can-eat-improve-eyesight.html#ixzz3uisUgsa0
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook